History of the Internet
24 Sep 09
1957: The USSR launches Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite. In response, the United States forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish us lead in Science and Technology applicable to Military. 1962: RAND Paul Baran, of the RAND Corporation (a government agency), was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to do study on how it could maintain its command and control over its missiles and bombers, after a nuclear attack. This was to be a military research network that could survive a nuclear strike, decentralized so that if any locations(cities) in the US were attacked. the military could still have control of nuclear arms for a counter-attack. Baran's finished document described several ways to accomplish this. His final proposal was a packet switched network. "Packet switching is the breaking down of data into datagrams or packets that a labeled to indicate the origin and the destination of the information and the forwarding of these packets from one computer to another computer until the information arrives at its final destination computer. This was crucial to the realization of a computer network. If packets are lost at any given point, the message can be resent by the originator. 1968:ARPA awarded the ARPANET contract to BBN. BBN had selected a Honeywell minicomputer as the base on which they would build the nodes: University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and University of Utah. The network was wired together via 50 Kbps circuits. 1972: The first e-mail program was created by Ray Tomlinson of BBN. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was renamed The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (or DARPA) ARPANET was currently using the Network Control Protocol or NCP to transfer data. This allowed communications between hosts running on the same network. 1973: Development began on the protocol later to be called TCP/IP, it was developed by a group headed by Vinton Cerf from Stanford and Bob Kahn from DARPA. This new protocol was to allow diverse computer networks to interconnect and communicate with each other. 1974: First Use of term Internet by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in paper on Transmission Control Protocol. 1976: Dr. Robert M. Metcalfe develops Ethernet, which allowed coaxial cable to move data extremely fast. This was a crucial component to the development of LANs.The packet satellite project went into practical use. SATNET, Atlantic packet Satellite network, was born. This network linked the United States with Europe. Surprisingly,it used INTELSAT satellites that were owned by a consortium of countries and not exclusively the United States government. 1979: USENET (the decentralized news group network) was created by Steve Bellovin, a graduate student at University of North Carolina, and programmers Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis. It was based on UUCP. The Creation of BITNET, by IBM, "Because its Time Network", introduced the "store and forward" network. It was used for email and listservs. 1981: National Science Foundation created backbone called CSNET 56 Kbps network for institutions without access to ARPANET. Vinton Cerf proposed a plan for an inter-network connection between CSNET and the ARPANET. 1983: Internet Activities Board (IAB) was created in 1983.On January 1st, every machine connected to ARPANET had to use TCP/IP. TCP/IP became the core Internet protocol and replaced NCP entirely. The University of Wisconsin created Domain Name System (DNS). This allowed packets to be directed to a domain name, which would be translated by the server database into the corresponding IP number. This made it much easier for people to access other servers, because they no longer had to remember numbers. 1984: The ARPANET was divided into two networks: MILNET and ARPANET. MILNET was to serve the needs of the military and ARPANET to support the advanced research component, Department of Defense continued to support both networks. Upgrade to CSNET was contracted to MCI. New circuits would be T1 lines,1.5 Mbps which is twenty-five times faster than the old 56 Kbps lines. IBM would provide advanced routers and Merit would manage the network. New network was to be called NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network),and old lines were to remain called CSNET. 1985: The National Science Foundation began deploying its new T1 lines, which would be finished by 1988. 1986: The Internet Engineering Task Force or IETF was created to serve as a forum for technical coordination by contractors for DARPA working on ARPANET, US Defense Data Network (DDN), and the Internet core gateway system. 1987: BITNET and CSNET merged to form the Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (CREN), another work of the National Science Foundation. 1988: Soon after the completion of the T1 NSFNET backbone, traffic increased so quickly that plans immediately began on upgrading the network again. 1990: (Updated 8/2001) Merit,IBM and MCI formed a not for profit corporation called ANS,Advanced Network & Services, which was to conduct research into high speed networking. It soon came up with the concept of the T3, a 45 Mbps line. NSF quickly adopted the new network and by the end of 1991 all of its sites were connected by this new backbone. While the T3 lines were being constructed, the Department of Defense disbanded the ARPANET and it was replaced by the NSFNET backbone.The original 50Kbs lines of ARPANET were taken out of service.Tim Berners-Lee and CERN in Geneva implements a hypertext system to provide efficient information access to the members of the international high-energy physics community. 1991: CSNET (which consisted of 56Kbps lines) was discontinued having fulfilled its important early role in the provision of academic networking service. A key feature of CREN is that its operational costs are fully met through dues paid by its member organizations. The NSF established a new network,named NREN, the National Research and Education Network. The purpose of this network is to conduct high speed networking research. It was not to be used as a commercial network, nor was it to be used to send a lot of the data that the Internet now transfers. 1992:Internet Society is chartered.World-Wide Web released by CERN.NSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736Mbps) 1993: InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services (by AT&T),registration services (by Network Solutions Inc.), and information services (by General Atomics/CERFnet).Marc Andreessen and NCSA and the University of Illinois develops a graphical user interface to the WWW, called "Mosaic for X". 1994: No major changes were made to the physical network. The most significant thing that happened was the growth. Many new networks were added to the NSF backbone.Hundreds of thousands of new hosts were added to the INTERNET during this time period.Pizza Hut offers pizza ordering on its Web page.First Virtual, the first cyberbank, opens.ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode, 145Mbps) backbone is installed on NSFNET. 1995: The National Science Foundation announced that as of April 30, 1995 it would no longer allow direct access to the NSF backbone. The National Science Foundation contracted with four companies that would be providers of access to the NSF backbone (Merit).These companies would then sell connections to groups, organizations, and companies. $50 annual fee is imposed on domains, excluding .edu and .gov domains which are still funded by the National Science Foundation. 1996: Most Internet traffic is carried by backbones of independent ISPs,including MCI, AT&T, Sprint, UUnet,BBN planet, ANS, and more Currently the Internet Society, the group that controls the INTERNET,is trying to figure out new TCP/IP to be able to have billions of addresses, rather than the limited system of today. The problem that has arisen is that it is not known how both the old and the new addressing systems will be able to work at the same time during a transition period
23 Sep 09
Not sure if my memory is up to the task but I believe it was back in the 50s AARPA or DARPA, something like that, but I am sure it's military. They wanted a way to keep the lines of communication open in times of war or any time I guess. They worked with University students to develop a system that would route from one location to another so that communications would stay active. It wasn't until years later that it slowly became available to the general public.
23 Sep 09
Hi friend, Uptill I remember The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, and moved over. DARPA comes in 1966.The Internet, then known as ARPANET, was brought online in 1969 under a contract.
24 Sep 09
You sure seem to have great knowledge on the subject and this is one reason i love using mylot, googling and wikipedia doesn't give the personal opinion or knowledge.it just is an article which has great contents but knowing it from the general users and discussing it is much more beneficial.
24 Sep 09
Intetnet is the world's largest computer network, which originated in the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in 1968 developed the auspices of the computer used to support military research experiment network ARPANET. ARPANET's original purpose in building a network designed to help those who work for the U.S. military researchers to exchange information through the computer, its design and implementation is based on a dominant idea: network to be able to withstand the test of failure to maintain normal work, As part of a network attack due to loss of role, the rest of the network able to maintain normal traffic. 1985 in the United States Government with the help of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to form the first network named NFSnet, accompanied by TCP / IP protocol to grow, so to make NSFNET was built in 1986 to replace the ARPANET later became the backbone Internet network. They end the use of TCP / IP support NFSnet network called Internet network, that is the world's largest computer, the Internet.
24 Sep 09
Hi friend, You might forget some of the in between less popular versions. In 1971 Ray Tomlinson of BBN came up with an way of sending messages on a distributed network."E-mail", as it became known.In 1973 ARPANET established links to England and Norway. The transition to TCP/IP was completed in 1983. In 1983 the ARPANET was split into ARPANET and MILNET (Military Network). However you provided an amazing information. thanks for your response.
1 Oct 09
Hey, I don't really know anything about the history of the Internet, sorry about this. Hopefully someone else will be able to answer your question better than I have done, in a really good way so you can actually benefit from it. Make sure you have a good day, God bless and Happy Lotting!!
23 Sep 09
Not every thing i know but i remember that it starts from ARPANET which was used in Pentagon in USA for defence purposes. Then it was planned to connect the universities for research and data transfer. and gradually this disolved into internet. its a very long story
23 Sep 09
nitish hellow and good day, Internet is a widely used technology today but do you know that this is still existing until now from the last world war one or two if I'm not mistaken its about the year of 1858, they used this to track and communicate with each other, I don't know what are the devices they are using, but on that time the army was only the first to use it it does not published in the people, But when the oldest company which is apple(MACINTOSH) and IBM designed the first electronic computer which has a monitor, keyboard, they have released the internet only in the Big company not in the public, When this two companies created the first home computer the internet is fast spreading in the market and unit now we are using it. I hope I helped you with your concern, Sorry if there will be mistakes with my info beacuse its our lecture in information technology when I was in college.