What is a typhoid fever?

Organism causing typhoid fever - Salmonella typhoisa
@dhaeo_09 (1007)
Philippines
December 21, 2006 9:55pm CST
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection transmitted by contaminated water, milk, shellfish, or other food. It is also an infection of the gastro intestinal tract affecting the lymphoid tissues (Peyer's patches) of the small intestines. This disease is caused by an organism SALMONELLA TYPHOSA/TYPHI. This organism is a gram-negative, motile, and non spore forming. This is pathogenic to humans only. The incubation period of this disease is 5-40 days. The period of communicability is variable as long as th patient is excreting the microorganism, he is still capable of infecting others. The source of this disease is it can be acquired through carriers, ingestion of shellfishes that was contaminated by sewage disposal and stool and vomitus. It can be transferred through fecal-oral transmission. Pathology: The organism gain access to the blood stream through the bowel, principally through the infected Peyer's Patches of the lymphoid tissues. First week these lymphoid tissues are swollen. Second week, They form sloughs which are often bile-colored Third week, the sloughs separates and leave an ulcerated surface which then start to heal by granulation. Since toxin is absorbed by the blood stream, almost all organs of the body are affected, most commonly the heart, the liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph glands are red and swollen.
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24 responses
@gscs1838 (1536)
• Malaysia
22 Dec 06
the symptoms of typhoid fever come on gradually. at first, people may get a headache, stomachache, and constipation*. they develop a fever and lose their appetite. in some cases, they may get rose spots, a rash mostly on the chest and abdomen. as symptoms worsen, the fever may rise as high as 103 to 104 degrees fahrenheit. people often develop bloody diarrhea, become dehydrated (lose fluids faster than they are replaced), and start acting confused or disoriented. In severe cases, people may go into a coma, a state of deep unconsciousness, and die.
1 person likes this
• Philippines
22 Dec 06
wooow thank god that i'm not gone to far with that i only have a high fever every night and when my fever did not gone for a week they decided to get me to the hospital to prevent me for getting worst..
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• Philippines
22 Dec 06
yikes! that's really scary... :( my boyfriend's brother was diagnosed with typhoid fever just yesterday... what a timely discussion! he had fever for days, and he currently has a headache, and diarrhea... it's really a pitiful sight.. when the docs inserted the needle for the dextrose... he's the chubby type, and they had a hard time finding the vein. they tried a lot of times. i can just imagine the pain... :( now he's still in the hospital. i hope he'll recover fast...
@vanities (11351)
• Davao, Philippines
23 Dec 06
thanks for the medical information i appreciated it very much
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@123456_ (1053)
• Philippines
22 Dec 06
did you know that A person may become an asymptomatic carrier of typhoid fever, suffering no symptoms, but capable of infecting others. Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions. Public education campaigns encouraging people to wash their hands after toileting and before handling food are an important component in controlling spread of the disease.
1 person likes this
• United States
22 Dec 06
typhoid fever is what you die from on Oregon trail if you make it across the river and don't die from a snake bite or dysentary. You should make another post telling us what dysentary is... it sounds worse than typhoid fever, but I don't know.
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@uvacerba (427)
• Italy
22 Dec 06
mom I knew it: -/
@vipul20044 (5800)
• India
22 Dec 06
Typhoid fever (a.k.a. Enteric fever) is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. Very common worldwide, it is transmitted by ingestion of food or water contaminated with feces from an infected person. The bacteria then multiply in the blood stream of the infected person and are absorbed into the digestive tract and eliminated with the waste.
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• India
22 Dec 06
i knw i was hit y this diese this year
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@shedii (1488)
• India
22 Dec 06
doll in suit - doll in suit
I have suffered from typhoid 3 times & always pray it doesn't happen to anybody. It brings lots more problems with it. Its really bad & dangerous.
• India
22 Dec 06
Typhoid is a very harmful disease. When I was a small child even I was effected by Typhoid. That was a horrible experience. You need to take complete bed rest if you get this disease, typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. In the United States about 400 cases occur each year, and 75% of these are acquired while traveling internationally. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 21.5 million persons each year. Typhoid fever can be prevented and can usually be treated with antibiotics. If you are planning to travel outside the United States, you should know about typhoid fever and what steps you can take to protect yourself.
1 person likes this
22 Dec 06
i have been through this phase! i dnt remember much...but I do remmeber that it was terrible!
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@volschenkh (1045)
• South Africa
22 Dec 06
Salmonella enterica is a flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella. Salmonella Typhi is a serovar of Salmonella enterica (formerly known as Salmonella choleraesuis) and the cause of the disease typhoid fever. The organism can be transmitted by the fecal-oral route—it is excreted by humans in feces and may be transmitted by contaminated water, food, or by person-to-person contact (with inadequate attention to personal hygiene). Antibiotics, such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, have been commonly used to treat typhoid fever in developed countries. Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case-fatality rate to approximately 1%. Usage of Ofloxacin along with Lactobacillus acidophilus is also recommended.
@sudhajan (1230)
• France
22 Dec 06
hi i have complete details of typhoid fever. What is typhoid fever? Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and occasionally the bloodstream. It is an uncommon disease with only 30-50 cases occurring in New York each year. Most of the cases are acquired during foreign travel to underdeveloped countries. The germ that causes typhoid is a unique human strain of salmonella called Salmonella typhi. Outbreaks are rare. Who gets typhoid fever? Anyone can get typhoid fever but the greatest risk exists to travelers visiting countries where the disease is common. Occasionally, local cases can be traced to exposure to a person who is a chronic carrier. How is the germ spread? Typhoid germs are passed in the feces and, to some extent, the urine of infected people. The germs are spread by eating or drinking water or foods contaminated by feces from the infected individual. What are the symptoms? Symptoms may be mild or severe and may include fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, rose-colored spots on the trunk and an enlarged spleen and liver. Relapses are common. Fatalities are less than one percent with antibiotic treatment. How soon do symptoms appear? Symptoms generally appear one to three weeks after exposure. For how long can an infected person carry the typhoid germ? The carrier stage varies from a number of days to years. Only about three percent of cases go on to become lifelong carriers of the germ and this tends to occur more often in adults than in children. How is typhoid treated? Specific antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, ampicillin or ciprofloxacin are often used to treat cases of typhoid. Should infected people be isolated? Because the germ is passed in the feces of infected people, only people with active diarrhea who are unable to control their bowel habits (infants, certain handicapped individuals) should be isolated. Most infected people may return to work or school when they have recovered, provided that they carefully wash hands after toilet visits. Children in daycare, health care workers, and persons in other sensitive settings must obtain the approval of the local or state health department before returning to their routine activities. Food handlers may not return to work until three consecutive negative stool cultures are confirmed. Is there a vaccine for typhoid? A vaccine is available but is generally reserved for people traveling to underdeveloped countries where significant exposure may occur. Strict attention to food and water precautions while traveling to such countries is the most effective preventive method. these are few things people want to know and have doubts..
1 person likes this
• India
22 Dec 06
What is typhoid fever? Typhoid fever is an infectious feverish disease with severe symptoms in the digestive system in the second phase of the illness. Classic typhoid fever is a serious disease. It can be life-threatening, but antibiotics are an effective treatment. The disease lasts several weeks and convalescence takes some time. The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. It is primarily for this reason that it is no longer so commonly seen in Europe. In the UK, of the 1735 cases reported between 1980 and 1989, it is estimated that 87 per cent were infected abroad. What causes typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever? Typhoid fever is caused by an infection with the bacterium Salmonella typhi, which is only found in humans and may lead to serious illness. When the bacterium passes down to the bowel, it penetrates through the intestinal mucosa (lining) to the underlying tissue. If the immune system is unable to stop the infection here, the bacterium will multiply and then spread to the bloodstream, after which the first signs of disease are observed in the form of fever. The bacterium penetrates further to the bone marrow, liver and bile ducts, from which bacteria are excreted into the bowel contents. In the second phase of the disease the bacterium penetrates the immune tissue of the small intestine, and the often violent small-bowel symptoms begin. Paratyphoid fever is caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a similar and generally milder disease. Salmonella enteriditis and Salmonella typhimurium are other salmonella bacteria that are unfortunately quite familiar within the UK and cause food poisoning and diarrhoea. The term 'murine typhus' is used for salmonella in animals. How is typhoid fever spread? Salmonella typhi can only attack humans, so the infection always comes from another human, either an ill person or a healthy carrier of the bacterium. The bacterium is passed on with water and foods and can withstand both drying and refrigeration. As it is necessary for someone to be exposed to a certain quantity of bacteria before symptoms occur, the storage of foods is also of great significance. They must be kept refrigerated and prepared correctly, as required by general hygiene, so that any bacteria present are not able to multiply significantly. Where does typhoid fever occur? Typhoid fever is not a tropical disease and is related to hygiene and sanitary conditions rather than the climate itself. Typhoid fever is found in large parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, where it occasionally causes epidemics. The WHO estimates that there are approximately 16 million cases a year, which result in 600,000 deaths. Many of those infected get the disease in Asian countries. What are the symptoms of the disease? The incubation period is 10 to 20 days and depends on, among other things, how large a dose of bacteria has been taken in. In the mild disease, the bacterium is eliminated very early in the course of the disease and there are perhaps only mild symptoms. It is possible to become a healthy carrier of infection. There are two phases of classic typhoid fever: 1st phase: the patient's temperature rises gradually to 40ºC and the general condition becomes very poor with bouts of sweating, no appetite, coughing and headache. Constipation and skin symptoms may be the clearest symptoms. Children often vomit and have diarrhoea. The first phase lasts a week and towards the end the patient shows increasing listlessness and clouding of consciousness. 2nd phase: in the second to third weeks of the disease, symptoms of intestinal infection are manifested and the fever remains very high and the pulse becomes weak and rapid. In the third week the constipation is replaced by severe pea-soup-like diarrhoea. The faeces may also contain blood. It is not until the fourth or fifth week that the fever drops and the general condition slowly improves. Complications Intestinal perforation or profuse bleeding from the intestinal mucosa may occur if typhoid fever is left untreated. Outlook There are good prospects of cure with antibiotics and the patient can be discharged from hospital when the general condition is stable. However, good general hygiene (as always) should be maintained in the home, as bacteria may continue to be excreted for several more weeks. If the patient is a food handler then they will need to stay off work until at least two stool samples show absence of the infection. What can you do yourself? There are several forms of vaccine that protect against Salmonella typhi. Most travel clinics use the injectable form (Typherix or Typhim Vi) rather than the oral form (Vivotif). The injectable vaccine is easier to administer since it only requires one dose and has less side effects. It should be administered at least two weeks prior to potential typhoid exposure and is effective for three years. The routes of infection depend on hygiene conditions and general kitchen hygiene should be maintained to prevent infection. For travel, the same precautions can be taken as described under cholera. How is the disease diagnosed? The clinical picture together with information on travel may be a good pointer for the doctor in moderate to severe cases. For the final diagnosis to be established, the bacteria have to be detected in samples from the stool, blood or other tissue. Malaria also needs to be considered as another possible explanation for the symptoms of the disease when the patient has been travelling in a malarial area. How is typhoid fever treated? Treatment requires admission to hospital and loss of fluid and salt is treated with fluid therapy as appropriate. The bacterium is controlled with antibiotics, and in very rare cases steroid medicines are also included in the treatment. Prevention Within the hospital setting, infected people are cared for in isolation. Proper hand hygiene is the most important way of preventing further spread in hospital. Stool samples are also taken from members of the patient's family to identify any 'healthy' carriers. I hope the above article by my Uncle Dr. Inderjeet Singh Arora explains the above mentioned disease very thoroughly.
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• India
22 Dec 06
typhpoid fever - Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and occasionally the bloodstream. It is an uncommon disease with only 30-50 cases occurring in New York each year. Most of the cases are acquired during foreign travel to underdeveloped countries. The germ that causes typhoid is a unique human strain of salmonella called Salmonella typhi. Outbreaks are rare.
nyone can get typhoid fever but the greatest risk exists to travelers visiting countries where the disease is common. Occasionally, local cases can be traced to exposure to a person who is a chronic carrier.Typhoid germs are passed in the feces and, to some extent, the urine of infected people. The germs are spread by eating or drinking water or foods contaminated by feces from the infected individual.Symptoms may be mild or severe and may include fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, rose-colored spots on the trunk and an enlarged spleen and liver. Relapses are common. Fatalities are less than one percent with antibiotic treatment.Symptoms generally appear one to three weeks after exposure.Specific antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, ampicillin or ciprofloxacin are often used to treat cases of typhoid.A vaccine is available but is generally reserved for people traveling to underdeveloped countries where significant exposure may occur. Strict attention to food and water precautions while traveling to such countries is the most effective preventive method.
1 person likes this
@rave883 (140)
• India
22 Dec 06
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection characterized by diarrhea, systemic disease, and a rash -- most commonly caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Return to top S. typhi are spread by contaminated food, drink, or water. Following ingestion, the bacteria spread from the intestine via the bloodstream to the intestinal lymph nodes, liver, and spleen via the blood where they multiply. Salmonella may directly infect the gallbladder through the hepatic duct or spread to other areas of the body through the bloodstream. Early symptoms are generalized and include fever, malaise and abdominal pain. As the disease progresses, the fever becomes higher (greater than 103 degrees Fahrenheit), and diarrhea becomes prominent. Weakness, profound fatigue, delirium, and an acutely ill appearance develop. A rash, characteristic only of typhoid and called "rose spots," appears in some cases of typhoid. Rose spots are small (1/4 inch) red spots that appear most often on the abdomen and chest. Typically, children have milder disease and fewer complications than adults. A few people can become carriers of S. typhi and continue to shed the bacteria in their feces for years, spreading the disease, as in the case of "Typhoid Mary" in New York over 100 years ago. Although typhoid fever is common in developing countries, less than 400 cases are reported in the U.S. each year, most brought in from abroad. Symptoms Return to top Severe headache Fever Loss of Appetite General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise) Rash (rose spots) appearing on the lower chest and abdomen during the second week of the fever Abdominal tenderness Constipation, then diarrhea Bloody stools Slow, sluggish, lethargic Fatigue Weakness Nosebleed Chills Delirium Confusion Agitation Fluctuating mood Difficulty paying attention (attention deficit) Hallucinations Signs and tests Return to top An elevated white blood cell count in blood A blood culture during first week of the fever can show S. typhi bacteria A stool culture An ELISA test on urine may show Vi antigen specific for the bacteria A platelet count (decreased platelets ) A fluorescent antibody study (demonstrates Vi antigen, which is specific for typhoid) Treatment Return to top Intravenous fluids and electrolytes may be given. Appropriate antibiotics are given to kill the bacteria. There are increasing rates of antibiotic resistance throughout the world, so the choice of antibiotics should be a careful one
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@scorpius (1793)
• India
22 Dec 06
typhoid cell - typhoid cell
that is sick.i never thought of typhoid cna do all of those things.guess we all have to be careful from now on.but how did this germ/vorus/originate in the first place?where did it come from? is it fatal,i think so because i have heard of people dying of this disease! anyway i have given some links below which i hope are of help to others. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/typhoidfever_g.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhoid http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/travel/diseases/typhoid.htm
• India
22 Dec 06
hi, in general typhoid fever is a potentially life-threatening illness that is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). moreover Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract and can spread the infection directly to other people by contaminating food or water. pls get more info at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/typhoidfever_g.htm
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@ESKARENA1 (18304)
22 Dec 06
i contracted typhoid fever in Lancaster university in 1991, i have never felt as ill. It had flu like symptoms which gradually got worse but the worst part of it to me was the pain caused by the infection in my lymph glands. If you are in good health anyway the fever breaks in 3 to 5 days and you make a gradual recovery. However the virus remains in your body in a dormant state and can return when you are run down. If you do not have an adequate diet or are not strong enough to fight the infection it can be fatal
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• India
22 Dec 06
wow u have give a wonderful explanation about this fever and i know that it is very bad kind of fever as the person who is affected with this is really a poor guy as they loose their energy and it makes the person weak and it also gets cured very lately so , prevention is always better then cure. thank u.
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@sarkar1 (336)
• India
22 Dec 06
It is caused by 3 species of S.Typhii(Salmonella Typhii, Salmonella Paratyphii A, Salmonella Paratyphii B)...............................it can be diagonized by Widal test, by measuring the titre concentration of 'O' and 'H' antigen.
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