December 25, 2010 2:41am CST
What are the benefits of biology in the field of agriculture, livestock fisheries, forestry, environment? have a nice day thanks
25 Dec 10
USE IN THE FIELD OF FISHERY BIOLOGY Fish, both fish that live in freshwater as well as those living in the sea, is the aquatic organisms that can be utilized as one of human food, because of known protein content is very high. In addition, the fish body shape or surface looks interesting can be decorated in an aquarium. The use of Biology in the field of fisheries appear among others in an effort to fish farming, also in an effort to preserve the ecosystem of the waters. Cultivation of fish which have been carried out: in: (1) production ponds, floating net cages (kajapung), or FADs, and (2) preservation of coral reefs, mangrove, mangroves, and seagrass. BIOLOGICAL UTILIZATION IN FARM FIELD Just as in agriculture, the use of Biology in the field of animal husbandry was already so great. By applying knowledge of the branches of biology such as zoology, animal anatomy, animal physiology, genetics, reproductive biology, embryology, and molecular biology / genetic engineering, animal breeders and the wider society have been able to enjoy the results. Through the application of these sciences have produced many varieties of livestock, among them are a lot of egg-producing chickens, broilers, beef cattle, cows producing more milk, and sheep meat.
25 Dec 10
hi,see this, AGRICULTURE: Crop production is the major source of employment, food, farm income and foreign exchange earnings in most African countries. The main food crops, cultivated in diverse ecological conditions, include cereals, roots and tubers and oilseeds (sources of energy), grain legumes (source of cheap protein and an important component of farming systems), and various fruits and vegetables (protective foods). But tree crops such as oil palm, cacao, tea and coffee, and fibre crops (e.g. cotton) are important for both domestic and export markets. The production of food crops is especially low and marked fluctuations in agricultural output are experienced. High Yielding Variety (HYV) technologies for crops such as sorghum, millet, root crops and pulses are limited. Among the constraints to agricultural production are low input use, low fertility of soils, climatic (viz recurrent droughts) and weather vagaries, and a high incidence of insect pests, pathogens and weeds. There are great expectations that plant biotechnology has the potential of making a significant contribution towards increased crop productivity, stability and sustainability of production, especially through the development of cultivars resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, and the increased use of biofertilizers. Biotechnology in livestock and fisheries development The gap between human demand and the availability of livestock products is huge in Africa, and imports have been increasing fast. The productivity of African breeds is very low: mature beef cattle of 4-5 years hardly weight 300 kg (as against 400 kg at one year for exotic animals); the best African cows produced 300 litre/lactation (as against 5 000 litres and more in Europe); 100 African ewes produced 50 lambs every two or three years (as against 150 lambs a year in developed countries). Retrospectively, production policies that aimed at developing livestock through cross-breeding of exotic grade cattle with indigenous ones have generally failed. The new approach is not to make selection of local performant animals. Biotechnology offers good methods both for selection and cross-breeding schemes, essentially through Multiovulation Embryo Transfer (MOET) and the field diagnosis of pregnancy. Yet, there is wide diversity among the countries to use new technologies. For instance, even if simpler techniques such as Artificial Insemination (AI) are considered, it is seen that in East Southern Africa the technique is widely used, whereas in West and Central Africa, because of the predominance of nomadic transhumant livestock production, the technique is least developed. http://www.fao.org/docrep/v4845e/V4845E06.htm