Hindu roots of modern mathematics
December 20, 2006 5:00am CST
As to when the Hindus first began writing whole numbers according to this system, the available evidence shows that the system was not used by the great Indian astronomer Aryabhata (born in A.D. 476), but it was in use by the time of his pupil, Bhaskara I, around the year A.D. 520. (See Van der Waerden and Folkerts for more details.) News of the discovery spread, for, about 150 years later, Severus Sebokht, a bishop of the Nestorian Church ( one of the several Christian faiths existing in the East at the time), wrote from his residence in Keneshra on the upper Euphrates river as follows: I will not say anything now of the science of the Hindus, who are not even Syrians, of their subtle discoveries in this science of astronomy, which are even more ingenious then those of the Greeks and Babylonians, and of the fluent method of their calculation, which surpasses words. I want to say only that it is done with nine signs. If those who believe that they have arrived at the limit of science because they speak Greek ad known these things they would perhaps be convinced, even if a bit late, that there are others who know something, not only Greeks but also men of a different language. Hindu system of numeration had spread so far by the year A.D. 662, it may be surprising to learn that the earliest Arabic work we know of explaining the Hindu system is one written early in the ninth century whose title may be translated as The Book of Addition and Subtraction According to the Hindu Calculation. The author was Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi who, since the was born around the year A.D. 780, probably wrote his book after A.D. 800. The question arises, however, where al-Khwarizmi learned of the Hindu arithmetic, given that his home was in a region far from where Bishop Sebokht learned of Hindu numerals 150 years earlier. for info http://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IC0612-3192
7 Jan 07
Hinduism (Sanskrit: Sanatana Dharma ????? ???? "eternal law"; in several modern Indian languages also known as Hindu Dharma), is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. With its foundations in the Vedic civilization, it has no known founder being itself a conglomerate of diverse beliefs and traditions. It is the world's third largest religion after Christianity and Islam with approximately a billion adherents (2005 figure), of whom about 890 million live in India. Other countries with large Hindu populations include Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Theologically Hinduism is based on a number of religious texts developed over many centuries that contain purported spiritual insights along with guidance concerning the practice of dharma, or religious life. Among such texts, the Vedas are the most ancient, and they along with the Upanishads are the most important and foundational texts for Hindu philosophy. Other important scriptures include the eighteen Pura?as and the epics: the Mahabharata and the Ramaya?a. The Bhagavad Gita, which is contained within the Mahabharata, is a widely studied scripture that is seen as summarizing the spiritual teachings of the Vedas.
• Kochi, India
22 Jul 12
Nice work!!I would add to it.Even the numerals are copied from Hindu texts by the arabs.There contribution was only to simplify the symbols,so that becomes compatible to their pea sized brains.Also we invented the zero concept.I think we are re inventing zero in my answer papers.