learn c++ part 1

@kaniam (582)
December 29, 2006 3:40am CST
C++ Programming Sharam Hekmat Pragmatix Software Pty. Ltd. www.pragsoft.com IMPORTANT NOTICE Copyright © 1998 Pragmatix Software Pty. Ltd. All rights reserved.Visit our web site for other freeware, including the Pragmatica CASE Toolwww.pragsoft.comThis book is freeware, provided it is used for non-profit purposes only.Provided this copyright notice accompanies the book, you may redistribute, free of charge only, electronic and printed copies of this book.Electronic versions of this book may be downloaded from our web site.Please mail your comments to: sharam@pragsoft.com Contents Contents v Preface x Intended Audience xi Structure of the Book xi 1. Preliminaries 1 Programming 1 A Simple C++ Program 2 Compiling a Simple C++ Program 3 How C++ Compilation Works 4 Variables 5 Simple Input/Output 7 Comments 9 Memory 10 Integer Numbers 11 Real Numbers 12 Characters 13 Strings 14 Names 15 Exercises 16 2. Expressions 17 Arithmetic Operators 18 Relational Operators 19 Logical Operators 20 Bitwise Operators 21 Increment/Decrement Operators 22 Assignment Operator 23 Conditional Operator 24 Comma Operator 25 The sizeof Operator 26 Operator Precedence 27 Simple Type Conversion 28 Exercises 29 3. Statements 30 Simple and Compound Statements 31 The if Statement 32 The switch Statement 34 The while Statement 36 The do Statement 37 The for Statement 38 The continue Statement 40 The break Statement 41 The goto Statement 42 The return Statement 43 Exercises 44 4. Functions 45 A Simple Function 46 Parameters and Arguments 48 Global and Local Scope 49 Scope Operator 50 Auto Variables 51 Register Variables 52 Static Variables and Functions 53 Extern Variables and Functions 54 Symbolic Constants 55 Enumerations 56 Runtime Stack 57 Inline Functions 58 Recursion 59 Default Arguments 60 Variable Number of Arguments 61 Command Line Arguments 63 Exercises 64 5. Arrays, Pointers, and References 65 Arrays 66 Multidimensional Arrays 68 Pointers 70 Dynamic Memory 71 Pointer Arithmetic 73 Function Pointers 75 References 77 Typedefs 79 Exercises 80 6. Classes 82 A Simple Class 83 Inline Member Functions 85 Example: A Set Class 86 Constructors 90 Destructors 92 Friends 93 Default Arguments 95 Implicit Member Argument 96 Scope Operator 97 Member Initialization List 98 Constant Members 99 Static Members 101 Member Pointers 102 References Members 104 Class Object Members 105 Object Arrays 106 Class Scope 108 Structures and Unions 110 Bit Fields 112 Exercises 113 7. Overloading 115 Function Overloading 116 Operator Overloading 117 Example: Set Operators 119 Type Conversion 121 Example: Binary Number Class 124 Overloading for Input 128 Overloading [] 129 Overloading () 131 Memberwise Initialization 133 Memberwise Assignment 135 Overloading new and delete 136 Overloading -, *, and & 138 Overloading ++ and -- 142 Exercises 143 8. Derived Classes 145 An illustrative Class 146 A Simple Derived Class 150 Class Hierarchy Notation 152 Constructors and Destructors 153 Protected Class Members 154 Private, Public, and Protected Base Classes 155 Virtual Functions 156 Multiple Inheritance 158 Ambiguity 160 Type Conversion 161 Inheritance and Class Object Members 162 Virtual Base Classes 165 Overloaded Operators 167 Exercises 168 9. Templates 170 Function Template Definition 171 Function Template Instantiation 172 Example: Binary Search 174 Class Template Definition 176 Class Template Instantiation 177 Nontype Parameters 178 Class Template Specialization 179 Class Template Members 180 Class Template Friends 181 Example: Doubly-linked Lists 182 Derived Class Templates 186 Exercises 187 10. Exception Handling 188 Flow Control 189 The Throw Clause 190 The Try Block and Catch Clauses 192 Function Throw Lists 194 Exercises 195 11. The IO Library 196 The Role of streambuf 198 Stream Output with ostream 199 Stream Input with istream 201 Using the ios Class 204 Stream Manipulators 209 File IO with fstreams 210 Array IO with strstreams 212 Example: Program Annotation 214 Exercises 217 12. The Preprocessor 218 Preprocessor Directives 219 Macro Definition 220 Quote and Concatenation Operators 222 File Inclusion 223 Conditional Compilation 224 Other Directives 226 Predefined Identifiers 227 Exercises 228 Solutions to Exercises 230 Preface Since its introduction less than a decade ago, C++ has experienced growing acceptance as a practical object-oriented programming language suitable for teaching, research, and commercial software development. The language has also rapidly evolved during this period and acquired a number of new features (e.g., templates and exception handling) which have added to its richness. This book serves as an introduction to the C++ language. It teaches how to program in C++ and how to properly use its features. It does not attempt to teach object-oriented design to any depth, which I believe is best covered in a book in its own right. In designing this book, I have strived to achieve three goals. First, to produce a concise introductory text, free from unnecessary verbosity, so that beginners can develop a good understanding of the language in a short period of time. Second, I have tried to combine a tutorial style (based on explanation of concepts through examples) with a reference style (based on a flat structure). As a result, each chapter consists of a list of relatively short sections (mostly one or two pages), with no further subdivision. This, I hope, further simplifies the reader’s task. Finally, I have consciously avoided trying to present an absolutely complete description of C++. While no important topic has been omitted, descriptions of some of the minor idiosyncrasies have been avoided for the sake of clarity and to avoid overwhelming beginners with too much information. Experience suggests that any small knowledge gaps left as a result, will be easily filled over time through self-discovery. Intended Audience This book introduces C++ as an object-oriented programming language. No previous knowledge of C or any other programming language is assumed. Readers who have already been exposed to a high-level programming language (such as C or Pascal) will be able to skip over some of the earlier material in this book. Although the book is primarily designed for use in undergraduate computer science courses, it will be equally useful to professional programmers and hobbyists who intend to learn the language on their own. The entire book can be easily covered in 10-15 lectures, making it suitable for a one-term or one-semester course. It can also be used as the basis of an intensive 4-5 day industrial training course. Structure of the Book The book is divided into 12 chapters. Each chapter has a flat structure, consisting of an unnumbered sequence of sections, most of which are limited to one or two pages. The aim is to present each new topic in a confined space so that it can be quickly grasped. Each chapter ends with a list of exercises. Answers to all of the exercises are provided in an appendix. Readers are encouraged to attempt as many of the exercises as feasible and to compare their solutions against the ones provided. For the convenience of readers, the sample programs presented in this book (including the solutions to the exercises) and provided in electronic form. Sharam Hekmat Melbourne, Australia
1 response
• India
29 Dec 06
What exactly is the point of this discussion...are we suposed to discuss this book ?
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